The reason Cindy understood the book is because she had developed transitivity which is the ability to reason and logically combine relationships. Cindy was able to determine the relationship between the pigs and the communist regime as they overthrew the Czars during the Russian Revoulution. Cindy was also able to reason and logically conclude that once the pigs moved into they home and began to walk upon two legs, they have become what they have fought for. In fact I would take it a step further. I have to conclude based upon Piagets studies, that Cindy is in the formal operational stage, taking it a step beyond transitvity, because at this stage, a person is able to think in a more abstract and logical way. Piaget also suggests that Cindy has developed hypothetical-deductive reasoning, which means she can develop hypotheses and reach systematic conclusions.
Based on my conclusion, Lisa is still in the preoperational stage and at this time, Lisa has a limitation in her reasoning, and that limitation is egocentrism. This means that Lisa does not have ability to distinguish between her perception vs someone else’s perception. Lisa cannot see the relationship between the animals and how they relate to historical event.
The way Mr. Johnson can help Lisa I believe is to sit her down and have her make comparisons. On the one hand, discuss the human Czars, the human communist regime, and human secret police, and have her compare the human examples from examples in the book. In other words a comparison and contrast chart to help her to see the relationships between the two.
What Mr. Johnson could have done to present the assignment differently was to actually compile of list of acceptable books for the project as opposed to stating books which has “something” to do with history. This may have aided Lisa so that she did not have to rush to get the assignment done.
As I analyze Cindy she seems to fall on two stages both the concrete operational stage and the formal operational stage for reasons already given, but I will emphasize again. Cindy as the ability to reason and to think logically, as well as think in a more abstract way.
I put Lisa in preoperational stage simply because of the egocentrism stage and her inability to distinguish her own perspective vs someone else’s perspective.